Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a serious condition that occurs in infants or young children who fail to establish healthy attachments with parents or caregivers. This disorder may develop when a child’s basic needs for comfort, affection, and nurturing are not met, and they are unable to form stable and loving attachments with others.

With appropriate treatment, children with reactive attachment disorder can develop more stable and healthy relationships with caregivers and others. Treatments involve creating a stable and nurturing environment and providing positive interactions between the child and caregiver. Parent or caregiver counseling and education can also be beneficial.

Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder

Reactive attachment disorder usually begins in infancy and may include the following signs and symptoms:

  • Unexplained withdrawal, fear, sadness, or irritability.
  • Sad and listless appearance.
  • Not seeking comfort or showing no response when comfort is given.
  • Failure to smile.
  • Watching others closely but not engaging in social interaction.
  • Failure to reach out when picked up.
  • No interest in playing interactive games.
  • Behavior problems.
  • Failing to seek support or assistance.

When to Seek Medical Attention

If your child displays concerning signs that persist over time, consider getting an evaluation. Some symptoms may occur in children without reactive attachment disorder or those with other conditions such as autism spectrum disorder. To determine whether the behaviors indicate a more serious problem, consult a pediatric psychiatrist or psychologist.

Causes of Reactive Attachment Disorder

Infants and young children require a stable and caring environment to feel safe and develop trust. When their basic emotional and physical needs are consistently met by caregivers, a stable attachment is formed. However, a child whose needs are ignored or met with a lack of emotional response from caregivers fails to expect care or comfort, leading to an unstable attachment.

The exact reasons why some children develop reactive attachment disorder while others don’t remain unclear. Various theories exist, and further research is necessary to enhance understanding and improve diagnosis and treatment options.

Risk Factors

The risk of developing reactive attachment disorder may increase in children who:

  • Live in a children’s home or institution.
  • Frequently change foster homes or caregivers.
  • Have parents with severe mental health problems, criminal behavior, or substance abuse that affects their parenting.
  • Experience prolonged separation from parents or caregivers due to repeated out-of-home placement, hospitalization, or death of a primary caregiver.

However, it’s essential to note that most severely neglected children do not develop reactive attachment disorder.


If left untreated, reactive attachment disorder can persist for several years and lead to lifelong consequences. These complications may include issues with relationships, social interactions, mental and physical health, behavior, intellectual development, and substance abuse.

Further research is necessary to determine if problems in older children and adults are related to early childhood experiences of reactive attachment disorder.


While it’s not certain if reactive attachment disorder can be prevented, there may be ways to reduce the risk of its development. Infants and young children require a stable and caring environment, and their basic emotional and physical needs should be consistently met. The following parenting suggestions may help:

  • Be actively engaged with your child through play, talking, eye contact, and smiling.
  • Learn to interpret your baby’s cues and respond quickly and effectively to their needs.
  • Provide warm and nurturing interaction during feeding, bathing, or changing diapers.
  • Offer both verbal and nonverbal responses to your child’s feelings through touch, facial expressions, and tone of voice.
  • Consider taking classes or volunteering with children to learn how to interact in a nurturing manner if you lack experience or skills with babies or children.

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Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a condition that primarily affects children, and a comprehensive evaluation by a pediatric psychiatrist or psychologist is essential for diagnosis.

Evaluation Process

The evaluation process for RAD may include:

  • Direct observation of the child’s interaction with parents or caregivers.
  • Gathering details about the pattern of behavior over time.
  • Examining examples of the behavior in various situations.
  • Obtaining information about the child’s interactions with parents, caregivers, and others.
  • Asking questions about the child’s home and living situation since birth.
  • Evaluating the parenting and caregiving styles and abilities.

During the evaluation, the mental health provider will also assess whether other psychiatric disorders coexist, such as intellectual disability, adjustment disorders, autism spectrum disorder, depressive disorders, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

The diagnostic criteria for reactive attachment disorder are outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association. Generally, diagnosis is not made before 9 months of age, and signs and symptoms typically appear before the age of 5 years.

Diagnostic Criteria for RAD

The DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing reactive attachment disorder include:

  • A consistent pattern of emotionally withdrawn behavior toward caregivers, manifested by rarely seeking or not responding to comfort when distressed.
  • Persistent social and emotional problems, such as minimal responsiveness to others, no positive response to interactions, or unexplained irritability, sadness, or fearfulness during interactions with caregivers.
  • Persistent lack of having emotional needs for comfort, stimulation, and affection met by caregivers, or repeated changes of primary caregivers that limit opportunities to form stable attachments, or care in a setting that severely limits opportunities to form attachments (such as an institution).
  • No diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

Treatment for Reactive Attachment Disorder

Although there is no standard treatment for RAD, intervention should involve both the child and parents or primary caregivers. The treatment goals are to ensure the child has a safe and stable living situation and develops positive interactions and strengthens the attachment with parents and caregivers.

Mental health professionals provide education and coaching in skills that help improve RAD symptoms. Treatment strategies include:

  • Encouraging the child’s development through nurturing, responsive, and caring interactions.
  • Providing consistent caregivers to foster a stable attachment for the child.
  • Creating a positive, stimulating, and interactive environment for the child.
  • Addressing the child’s medical, safety, and housing needs, as appropriate.

Additional services that may benefit the child and family include individual and family psychological counseling, education about the condition for parents and caregivers, and parenting skills classes.

Controversial Techniques and Caution

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry discourages the use of dangerous and unproven treatment techniques for RAD. These techniques may involve physical restraint or force to break down what’s believed to be the child’s resistance to attachments. Such practices are unsupported by scientific evidence and can be psychologically and physically damaging, leading to accidental deaths.

If considering unconventional treatment, consult with the child’s psychiatrist or psychologist first to ensure it is evidence-based and safe.

Coping and Support

Parents or caregivers of children with RAD may experience feelings of anger, frustration, guilt, and distress. Coping strategies include:

  • Educating oneself and the family about RAD through trusted sources and professionals.
  • Seeking respite care from a nurturing caregiver familiar with RAD to avoid burnout.
  • Practicing stress management skills, such as yoga or meditation.
  • Maintaining personal hobbies, social engagements, and exercise routines.
  • Acknowledging and seeking professional help for strong emotions related to the child’s condition.

Preparing for the Appointment

If you suspect RAD in your child, start by visiting a pediatrician who may refer you to a child psychiatrist, psychologist, or a pediatrician specializing in child development. Before the appointment:

  • Make a list of behavior problems or emotional issues observed in the child.
  • Note approaches or treatments attempted and their effectiveness.
  • Be ready to share key personal information and any major stresses or life changes.
  • List all medications, vitamins, herbal remedies, or supplements the child is taking, including dosages.

Prepare a set of questions to ask the healthcare provider, addressing the child’s behavior, possible causes, recommended treatments, and any available support services.

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